Volume 2, Issue 3, May 2014, Page: 94-99
Voluntary Feed Intake and Nutrient Utilization of West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Supplements of Moringa oleifera and Gliricidia sepium Fodders
Adegun Maria Kikelomo, Department of Animal Production and Health Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
Received: May 2, 2014;       Accepted: May 15, 2014;       Published: May 30, 2014
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajaf.20140203.16      View  3159      Downloads  237
Moringa oleifera (Mo) and Gliricidia sepium (Gs) fodders and their mixtures were fed as protein supplements to basal diets of Panicum maximum (Pm) and cassava peels. Thirty two (32) yearling West African Dwarf (WAD) rams were divided into four groups of eight animals balanced for body weight and allocated to dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design for fifteen (15) weeks. Animals in group 1 consumed the basal diet only while animals from group 2, 3 and 4 were fed basal diets with supplements of Mo, Gs and their mixtures respectively. Voluntary feed intake (VFI), nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization of the animals were evaluated. Animals fed basal diet only had reduced VFI (252.36±22.0g day-1) while those on Mo and Gs mixtures had significantly higher (p<0.05) VFI value of 344.96±22.2g day-1. Voluntary feed intake of basal diet was increased significantly (p<0.05) for animals in group 2 and 4 (260.20±30.00 and 270.46±20.6g day-1 respectively). Higher but significantly different (p<0.05) dry matter digestibility values of 63.90±3.06, 62.72±3.02 and 68.50±4.32% were obtained for animals in group 2, 3 and 4 respectively while the animals in group 1 had the least value of 48.39±2.03%. Similar trend exist in crude protein and crude fibre digestibility with animals in group 4 having significantly higher (p<0.05) values of 60.62±5.24 and 68.63±3.22% respectively. The result of nitrogen utilization indicate significantly lowest (p<0.05) value of 3.56±0.16g day-1 of digested nitrogen for animals in group 1. Higher nitrogen retention value (p<0.05) of 65.81±4.20% was obtained in sheep on Mo and Gs fodder combinations. Those on separate Mo and Gs fodders were statistically similar (58.55±3.02% and 58.00±5.30% respectively) but higher (p<0.05) than those on basal diet (43.70±3.02%). Supplementation of Panicum maximum and cassava peels basal diet with Moringa oleifera or Gliricidia sepium fodders improved the intake of basal diet and enhanced better nutrient utilization of WAD sheep. Mixtures of the two fodders in the same ratio were superior to either supplementation.
Moringa oleifera, Fodder Trees, Voluntary Feed Intake, Foliage Mixtures, Supplementation
To cite this article
Adegun Maria Kikelomo, Voluntary Feed Intake and Nutrient Utilization of West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Supplements of Moringa oleifera and Gliricidia sepium Fodders, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2014, pp. 94-99. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaf.20140203.16
Paterson, R. T., Karanja, G. M., Roothaert, R. L., Nyaata, O. Z., and Kariuki, I. W. (1998). A review of tree fodder production and utilization within smallholder agroforestry systems in Kenya. Agroforestry Systems, 41(2): 181-199.
Fasae, O. S., and Alokan, J. A. (2006). Growth performance of weaner Yankassa sheep fed varying levels of Leucaena leucocephala leaf residues. ASSES SERIES A6 (2): 323-328.
Agishi, E. C. (1985). Forage resources of Nigerian rangelands. In: Small Ruminants Production in Nigeria. Proceedings of the National Conference on Small Ruminant Production, Zaria Nigeria, 6-10 October 1985. National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika, Zaria, Nigeria. 115-140.
Devendra, C. (1992). Nutritional potential of fodder trees and shrubs as protein sources in ruminant nutrition. Legume trees and other fodder trees as protein source for livestock. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper, (102): 95-113.
Lowry, J. B. (1990). Toxic factors and problems: methods of alleviating them in animals. In: Shrubs and Tree fodders for Farm Animals. C. Devendra (ed.) IDRC, Ottawa, Canada, 76-88.
Akinbamijo, O.O., Adediran, S. A., Nouala, S., and Seacker, J. (2006). Moringa fodder in ruminant nutrition in the Gambia – Trees for life journal – a forum on beneficial trees and plants. Publication of International Trypanotolerance Centre, Banjul T retrieved on 6/4/2010 at http: // www.tfjournal.org.
Asaolu, V. O., Odeyinka, S. M., Akinbamijo, O. O., and Sodeinde, F. G. (2010). Effects of moringa and bamboo leaves on groundnut hay utilization by West African Dwarf goats. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 22 (1).Retrieved on May 28 2013, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd22/1/asao2212.htm.
Fuglie, L. J. (1999). The Miracle Tree: Moringa oleifera: Natural Nutrition for the Tropics. Church World Service, Dakar.66 pp.Revised in 2001 and published as The Miracle Tree: The Multiple Attributes of Moringa, 172 pp.
Bosman, H. G., Versteegden, C., Odeyinka, S. M., Tolkamp, B. J. (1995). Effect of amount offered on intake, digestibility and value of Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala for West African Dwarf goats. Small Ruminant Research, 15: 247-256.
Phiri, D. M., Coulman, B., Steppler, H. A., Kamara, C. S., and Kwesiga, F. (1992). The effect of browse supplementation on maize husk utilization by goats. Agroforestry Systems, 17(2): 153-158.
Adebowale, E. A., and Ademosun, A. A. (1981). Carcass characteristics and chemical composition of organs and muscles of sheep and goats fed brewers’ dried grain-based ration. Tropical Animal Production, 6: 133-137.
Van Soest, P.J. (1994). Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. 2nd edition Cornell Univ. Press, Yuthaca, NY.
Allen, M. S. (1996). Physical constraints on voluntary intake of forages by ruminants. Journal of Animal Science, 74(12): 3063-3075.
NAPRI (1984) Highlights of research achievements on animal production. Science and Technology briefing Lagos, December 1984. 3-17.
AOAC (2005). Official Method of Analysis, 18th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.
Pearson D (1976) Chemical Analysis of Foods. 7th Ed. Livingstone, London Church. 11: 7-11.
Adegbola, A.A., and Asaolu, O. (1986). Preparation of cassava peels for use in small ruminant production in Western Nigeria. In Preston T.R. and Nuwanyakpa, M.Y. (Eds) Proceed. of a workshop held at the University of Alexandria, Egypt, October, 1985, ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 109-115.
Asaolu, V., Binuomote, R., Akinlade, J., Aderinola, O., and Oyelami, O. (2012). Intake and Growth Performance of West African Dwarf Goats Fed Moringa oleifera, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala Dried Leaves as Supplements to Cassava Peels. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 2(10): 76-88.
Brisibe, E. A., Umoren U. E., Brisibe F., Magalhaes P. M., Ferreira J. F., Luthria D., Wu X., and Prior R. L. (2009). Nutritional characterization and antioxidant capacity of different tissues of Artemisia annua L. Food Chem. 115(4): 1240-1246.
Waldroup, W.P. and Smith, K. (2008). Fact sheet soyabean use – poultry soyabean meal information centre http://www.soymeal.org/pdf/poultry soybean use. pdf.Retrieved on 2/11/12.
Minson, D. J. (1990). Forage in Ruminant Nutrition. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
Okoli, I. C., Anunobi, M. O., Obua, B. E., and Enemuo, V. (2003). Studies on selected browses of South Eastern Nigeria with particular reference to their proximate and some endogenous anti-nutritional constituents. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 15(9): 3-7.
Van Soest, P.J. (1994). Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. 2nd edition Cornell Univ. Press, Yuthaca, NY.
Aye, P.A., and Adegun, M.K. (2010). Digestibility and growth in West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep fed Gliciridia-based multinutrient block supplements. Agricultural and Biology Journal of North America 1 (6): 1133 – 1139.
Leng, R. A. (1990). Factors affecting the utilization of “poor-quality" forages by ruminants particularly under tropical conditions. Nutrition Research Reviews, 3(1): 277-303.
Shelton, H. M. (2000). Tropical forage tree legumes in agroforestry systems. UNASYLVA-FAO-, 25-32.
Aregheore, E. M., and Perera, D. (2004). Effects of Erythrina variegata, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala on dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility of maize stover, before and after spraying with molasses. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 111(1): 191-201.
Bakshi, M. P. S., and Wadhwa, M. (2004). Evaluation of Forest Tree Leaves of Semi-hilly Arid Region as Livestock Feed. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci.17(6): 777-783.
Asaolu, V.O., Binuomote, R.T., Akinlade, J.A., Oyelami, O.S., and Kolapo K.O. (2011). Utilization of Moringa oleifera fodder combinations with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium fodders by West African dwarf goats. Int. J. Agric. Res, 6(8): 607-619.
Ulyatt, M. J. (1981). The feeding value of herbage: can it be improved. New Zealand Agricultural Science, 15(4): 200-205.
McDonald, P., Edward, R.A., Greenhalgh, J.F.D.F., and Morgan, C.A. (1996). Animal Nutrition. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow, UK. 155pp low, UK. 155pp.
Browse journals by subject