Volume 5, Issue 4, July 2017, Page: 73-83
Crop-Weed Relationships in Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench], Soybean (Glycine max L.) and Maize (Zea mays L.) in the Middleveld of Swaziland
Temnotfo Lobesutfu Mncube, Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, Luyengo Campus, Kwaluseni, Swaziland
Henry Raphael Mloza Banda, Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, Luyengo Campus, Kwaluseni, Swaziland
Received: May 3, 2017;       Accepted: May 10, 2017;       Published: Jun. 7, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajaf.20170504.11      View  1986      Downloads  104
Abstract
The effects of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench], soybean (Glycine max L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on weed growth were examined in a field experiment carried out at Luyengo (26°34’S; 31°12’E) in the Middleveld of Swaziland. The aim was to check consistency of competitiveness of crops under different weed removal regimes. Two series of weed removal treatments were included. In the first series, treatments of increasing duration of weed control were maintained weed-free until 3, 7 or 11 weeks after emergence of the crops. The weeds were subsequently allowed to develop till crop harvest. In the second series, weeds were allowed to develop with the crops from emergence until 3, 7 or 11 weeks after crop emergence; then the plots were kept weed-free till harvest. The weed species Oxalis latifolia, Cyperus esculentus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ipomoea purpurea and Nicandra physaloides occurred throughout the different weed-infested and weed-free interference durations. Commelina benghalensis and Acanthospermum hispidum were particularly predominant under increasing weed infestation treatments. The similarity matrix based on Jaccard’s coefficient showed that the composition of weeds under weed-free treatments in soybean was not identical to that of maize and okra, respectively. Further, the weed flora was not homogenous under different lengths of weed-free period showing the combined influence of weed removal and crop on the composition of weed infestation. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of weeds with either C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways associated with the three crops. A longer equality point of weed control and interference, and lower regression coefficient between weed biomass and yield for soybean compared to maize and okra suggested decreased sensitivity of soybean to weed interference. The results indicate potential for competitive crop genotypes such as soybean for use in intentionally designed cropping systems to augment weed control practices.
Keywords
Critical Period, Crop–Weed Competition, Photosynthetic Pathway, Weed Biomass, Weed Density, Weed Interference, Weed Species Composition
To cite this article
Temnotfo Lobesutfu Mncube, Henry Raphael Mloza Banda, Crop-Weed Relationships in Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench], Soybean (Glycine max L.) and Maize (Zea mays L.) in the Middleveld of Swaziland, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2017, pp. 73-83. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaf.20170504.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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