Volume 5, Issue 4, July 2017, Page: 73-83
Crop-Weed Relationships in Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench], Soybean (Glycine max L.) and Maize (Zea mays L.) in the Middleveld of Swaziland
Temnotfo Lobesutfu Mncube, Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, Luyengo Campus, Kwaluseni, Swaziland
Henry Raphael Mloza Banda, Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, Luyengo Campus, Kwaluseni, Swaziland
Received: May 3, 2017;       Accepted: May 10, 2017;       Published: Jun. 7, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajaf.20170504.11      View  2119      Downloads  107
The effects of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench], soybean (Glycine max L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on weed growth were examined in a field experiment carried out at Luyengo (26°34’S; 31°12’E) in the Middleveld of Swaziland. The aim was to check consistency of competitiveness of crops under different weed removal regimes. Two series of weed removal treatments were included. In the first series, treatments of increasing duration of weed control were maintained weed-free until 3, 7 or 11 weeks after emergence of the crops. The weeds were subsequently allowed to develop till crop harvest. In the second series, weeds were allowed to develop with the crops from emergence until 3, 7 or 11 weeks after crop emergence; then the plots were kept weed-free till harvest. The weed species Oxalis latifolia, Cyperus esculentus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ipomoea purpurea and Nicandra physaloides occurred throughout the different weed-infested and weed-free interference durations. Commelina benghalensis and Acanthospermum hispidum were particularly predominant under increasing weed infestation treatments. The similarity matrix based on Jaccard’s coefficient showed that the composition of weeds under weed-free treatments in soybean was not identical to that of maize and okra, respectively. Further, the weed flora was not homogenous under different lengths of weed-free period showing the combined influence of weed removal and crop on the composition of weed infestation. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of weeds with either C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways associated with the three crops. A longer equality point of weed control and interference, and lower regression coefficient between weed biomass and yield for soybean compared to maize and okra suggested decreased sensitivity of soybean to weed interference. The results indicate potential for competitive crop genotypes such as soybean for use in intentionally designed cropping systems to augment weed control practices.
Critical Period, Crop–Weed Competition, Photosynthetic Pathway, Weed Biomass, Weed Density, Weed Interference, Weed Species Composition
To cite this article
Temnotfo Lobesutfu Mncube, Henry Raphael Mloza Banda, Crop-Weed Relationships in Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench], Soybean (Glycine max L.) and Maize (Zea mays L.) in the Middleveld of Swaziland, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2017, pp. 73-83. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaf.20170504.11
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Gianessi, L. (2009). Solving Africa’s weed problem: increasing crop production and improving the lives of women. Crop Protection Research Institute, Crop-Life Foundation. http://www.croplifefoundation.org. 07/10/2016.
Gianessi, L. and Williams, A. (2011). Overlooking the obvious: the opportunity for herbicides in Africa. Outlooks on Pest Management pp. 211-215.
Racjan, I. and Swanton, C. J. (2001). Understanding maize-weed competition: resource competition, light quality and the whole plant. Field Crops Research 71: 135-150.
Hyvönen, T. and Salonen, J. (2002). Weed species diversity and community composition in cropping practices at two intensity levels – a six-year experiment. Plant Ecology 159: 73–81.
Ossom, E. M. (2005). Effects of weed control methods on weed infestation, soil temperature and maize yield in Swaziland. UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology 8 (1) 2005: 5-15.
Radosevich, S., Holt, J. and Ghersa, C. (1997). Weed ecology. 2nd edition. Harper and Row Publishers. USA. New York.
Baucom, R. S. and Holt, J. S. (2009). Weeds of agricultural importance: bridging the gap between evolutionary ecology and crop and weed science. New Pathologist 184: 741-743.
Ryan, M. R., Smith, R. G., Mortensen, D. A., Teasdale, J. R., Curran, W. S., Reidel, R. and Shumway, D. I. (2009). Weed–crop competition relationships differ between organicand conventional cropping systems. Weed Research 49: 572–580.
Weiner, J., Griepentrog, H.-W. and Kristensen, L. (2001). Suppression of weeds by spring wheat Triticum aestivum increases with crop density and spatial uniformity. Journal of Applied Ecology 38: 784–790.
Park, S. E., Benjamin, L. R. and Watkinson, A. R. (2003). The theory and application of plant competition models: an agronomic perspective. Annals of Botany 92: 741-748.
Worthington, M., Reberg-Horton, S. C., Brown-Guedira G., Jordan, D., Weisz, R. and Murphy, J. P. (2015). Relative contributions of allelopathy and competitive ability of winter wheat lines against Italian ryegrass. Crop Science 55 (1): 57-64.
Singh, M., Saxena, M. C. and Haddad, N. I. (1996). Estimation of critical period of weed control. Weed Science 44: 273-283.
Lightfoot, C. (1970). Common veld grasses of Rhodesia. Natural Resources Board of Rhodesia, Department of Conservation and Extension, Rhodesia. 131 pp.
Vernon, R. (1983). Field guide to important arable weeds of Zambia. Department of Agriculture, Zambia. 152 pp.
Concenço, G., Aspiazú, I., Ferreira, E. A., Galon, L. and da Silva, A. F. (2012). Physiology of crops and weeds under biotic and abiotic stresses. pp. 257-280. In: Najafpour, M. M. (Ed.). Applied Photosynthesis. Rijeka, Croatia.
Knezevic, S. Z., Evans, S. P., Blankenship, E. E., Van Acker, R. C. and Lindquist, J. L. (2002). Critical period for weed control: the concept and data analysis. Weed Science 50: 773-786.
Menalled, F. D., Gross, K. L. and Hammond, M. (2001). Weed aboveground and seedbank community responses to agricultural management systems. Ecological Applications 11: 1586–1601.
Dorado, J. and Lopez-Fendo, C. (2006). The effect of tillage system and use of a para-plow on weed flora in a semiarid soil from central Spain. Weed Research 46: 424–431.
Sattin, M., Berti, A. and Zanin, G. (1996). Crop yield loss in relation to weed time of emergence and removal: analysis of the variability with mixed weed infestations. Second International Weed Control Congress. Copenhagen. pp. 67-72.
Fernando, N., Manalil, S., Florentine, S. K., Chauhan, B. S. and Seneweera, S. (2016). Glyphosate resistance of C3 and C4 weeds under rising atmospheric CO2. Plant Science 7 (910): 1-11.
Singh, G., Bhan, V. M. and Tripati, S. S. (1982) Weed control in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench]. Indian Journal of Weed Science 14 (1): 19-23.
Nichols, V., Verhulst, N., Cox, R. and Govaerts, B. (2015). Weed dynamics and conservation agriculture principles: A review. Field Crops Research 183: 56–68.
Radosevich, S R and J S Holt 1984. Weed Ecology: Implications for Vegetation Management. Wiley Interscience, 2nd ed. New York, NY. 589 pp.
Tollenaar, M., Dibo, A. A., Aguilera, A., Weise, S. F. and Swanton, C. J. (1994). Effect of crop density on weed interference in maize. Agronomy Journal 86: 591-595.
Ito, M., Matsumoto, T., Quinones, M. A., 2007. Conservation cropping system in sub-Saharan Africa: the experience of Sasakawa Global 2000. Crop Protection 26: 417–423.
Marais, J. N. (1983). Weed competition in maize with reference to peasant farming. Fort Hare Papers. University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa. pp. 63-72.
Goldberg, D. E. (1990). Components of resource competition in plant communities. pp. 27–49. In: Grace J. B. and Tilman D. (Eds.). Perspectives in Plant Competition. Academic Press, San Diego, U. S. A.
Rajcan, I. and Swanton, C. J. (2001). Understanding maize-weed competition: resource competition, light quality and the whole plant. Field Crops Research 71: 139-150.
Keramati, S. Pirdashti, H., Esmaili, M. A., Abbasian, A. and Habibi, M. (2008). The critical period of weed control in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in North of Iran Conditions. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 11 (3): 463-467.
Van Heemst, H. D. J. (1985). The influence of weed competition on crop yield. Agricultural Systems 18: 81 -93.
Dada, O. A. and Fayinminnu, O. O. (2010). Period of weed control in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] as influenced by varying rates of cattle dung and weeding regimes. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 1: 149-154.
Bedmar, F., Manetti, P. and Monterubbianesi, G. (1999). Determination of the critical period of weed control in corn using a thermal basis. Pesq. Agropec. Brasília 34 (2): 187-193.
Browse journals by subject